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Extreme Explosions: Supernovae, Hypernovae, Magnetars, and Other Unusual Cosmic Blasts
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Extreme explosions [Elektronisk resurs] supernovae, hypernovae, magnetars, and other unusual cosmic blasts
Stevenson, David S.
What happens at the end of the life of massive stars? At one time we thought all these stars followed similar evolutionary paths. However, new discoveries have shown that things are not quite that simple. This book focuses on the extreme -the most intense, brilliant and peculiar- of astronomical explosions. It features highly significant observational finds that push the frontiers of astronomy and astrophysics, particularly as before these objects were only predicted in theory. This book is for those who want the latest information and ideas about the most dramatic and unusual explosions dete. Copyright; Preface; About the Author; Contents; Part I: An Overview of Stellar Evolution; 1. The Biology of Supernovae; Introduction; Spectra: Chemical Portraits of Stars; Photometry: Behavioral Studies of Stellar Death; The HR Diagram; The Power Sources of Nuclear Reactions in Stars; The Proton-Proton Chain of Low Mass Stars; The Carbon-Nitrogen Cycle; The Chemical Composition of Stars; Stellar Structure; The Lowest Mass Stars (0.075-0.3 Solar Masses); Low Mass Stars (0.3 to 2.0 Solar Masses); Intermediate and Massive Stars (Masses Greater Than Approximately 2 Solar Masses) Rotation and Angular MomentumThe Effects of Magnetism; The Biology of Supernovae; Supernova Taxonomy; Basic Identifying Features; Type Ia; Type .Ia ("Point One-a"); Type Ib; Type Ibn; Type Ic; Type II-P; Type II-L; Type IIn; Type IIa; Conclusions; 2. The Anatomy of Stellar Life and Death; Initial Conditions; The Life of a Star; The Main Sequence; The Main Sequence Lifetime; Instability on the Main Sequence; b -Cephei Variables; As Above, So Below; Helium Ignition and Subsequent Evolution; Death of a Star; Fallback; The Neutron Star; The Fate of the Surrounding Star. Formation of Supernova RemnantsMessages From a Retreating Front; Conclusions; Part II: A Walk Across the Rooftops; 3. Stellar Evolution at the Summit of the Main Sequence; Introduction; Looking Deeper into the Controversy; A Problem with Wolves; The Humphrey-Davidson Limit; Luminous and Violent Blue Variables; Evolutionary Paths of the Most Massive Stars; Type IIn Supernovae; Explaining Type IIn Properties; Catching the Wave; From Imposter to Supernova; Direct Detonation of LBVs; Slow Blow: The Case of Supernova SN 2008iy; The Impact of Collisions (No Pun Intended!); Conclusions. 4. Collapsars, Hypernovae and Long Gamma Ray BurstsIntroduction; From Star Wars to Star Death; Beppo-SAX to the Rescue; Of Fireballs and Jets; A Best Fit: The Collapsar Model; Hypernovae and Hyperbolae; Reconstructing the Supernova-GRB Connection; Supernova: Or Supranova?; XRFs and Type Ibc Supernovae; SN 2010jp: The First Jet-Powered Type II Supernova; Conclusions; 5. Death by Fallback; Introduction; The Mystery of Cygnus X-1; Controversial Supernovae; Populations; Conclusions; 6. The Formation of Massive Stars by Collision and Their Fate; Introduction. A Lack of Interpersonal Skills: Harassment and ScandalConclusions; 7. Electron-Capture Supernovae; Introduction; Supernova or Imposter?; The Troubling Fates of Intermediate Mass Stars; Limiting Factors; Post Main Sequence Evolution; The Cassino da Urca; Many Roads Lead to Rome; Did the Progenitor of SN 2008S Spend Too Much Time at the Roulette Table?; SN 2009md: A Faint Type IIP Supernova with a Troubling Origin; A Coda from the Distant Past: Type I.5 Supernovae; Conclusion; 8. Ultra-luminous Type IIn Supernovae; Introduction; Taking the Pulse. Imported from: (Do not remove)